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Research and Evidence-Based Care

Published scientific research is not a perfect or complete representation of all that is important in psychotherapy. Nevertheless, my work is always informed by available science.

Below are highlights from my contributions to psychological research. My work has been primarily in two areas: improving psychotherapy for PTSD, depression, and anxiety disorders; and interventions that could significantly increase accessibility to better mental health, such as physical exercise or treatment adapted to virtual reality.

Research: About Therapy

Posttraumatic stress disorder

Kearns, N.T., Carl, E., Stein, A.T., Vujanovic, A.A., Zvolensky, M.J., Smits, J.A.J., & Powers, M.B. (2018). Posttraumatic stress disorder and cigarette smoking: An updated systematic review. Depression and Anxiety, 35, 1056–1072.

Powers, M. B., Pogue, J. R., Curcio, N., Patel, S., Wierzchowski, A., Thomas, E., Warren, A. M., Adams, M., Turner, E., Carl, E., Froehlich-Grobe, K., Foreman, M., Leonard, K., Douglas, M., Bennett, M., & Driver, S. (2021). Prolonged exposure therapy for PTSD in spinal cord injury survivors: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications.


Stein, A., Carl, E., Cuijpers, P., Karyotaki, E., & Smits, J.A.J. (2019). Looking beyond depression: A meta-analysis of the effect of behavioral activation on depression, anxiety, and activation. Psychological Medicine, 51(9), 1491-1504.

Anxiety disorders & stress

Carl, E., Stein, A.T., Levihn-Coon, A., Pogue, J., Rothbaum, B., Emmelkamp, P., Asmundson, G.J.G., & Powers, M.B. (2019). Virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety and related disorders: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 61, 27-36. 

Carl, E., Witcraft, S., Kauffman, B., Gillespie, E.M., Becker, E., Cuijpers, P., Van Ameringen, M., Smits, J.A.J., & Powers, M.B. (2020). Psychological and pharmacological treatments for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 49(1), 1-21.

Hsu, K. J., Carl, E., DiVita, A., Feldman, T., Foulser, A.A., Freihart, B., Madole, J., McNamara, M.E., Rubin, M., Stein, A., Tretyak, V., Smits, J.A.J. (2021). Rising to the occasion of this COVID-19-impacted nation: The development, feasibility, and acceptability of the Brief Assessment-informed Skills Intervention for COVID-19 (BASIC). Cognitive and Behavioral Therapies, 28(4), 468-480.

Powers, M.B., Leonard, K., Turner, E., Pogue, J., Adams, M., Crozier, M., Carl, E., & Gillihan, S. (in press). Issues in differential diagnosis: Phobias and phobic conditions. In D. McKay & E. Storch (Eds.), Handbook of Child and Adolescent Anxiety Disorders. Springer.

Minns, S., Levihn-Coon, A., Carl, E., Smits, J.A.J., Miller, W., Howard, D., Papini, S., Quiroz, S., Lee-Furman, E., Telch, M., Carlbring, P., & Powers, M.B. (2018). Immersive 3D exposure-based treatment for spider fear: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 58, 1-7.

Pain management

Powers, M.B., Carl, E., Pogue, J., Fresnedo, M., Turner, E. Adams, M., Leonard, K., Levihn-Coon, A., Van Veldhuizen, M., Caven, A., Conroy, H., Lantrip, C., Caven, T., Isbell, C., Regner, J., Garmon, E. Foreman, M., Miller, W., Fares, L.A., Carlbring, P., Otto, M., Weiss, D.N., Hughes, J., Bernhardt, J., Oh, J., MacClements, J., Warren, A.M., Rosenfield, B., Rosenfield, D., & Smits, J.A.J. (2021). Non-pharmacologic pain management among hospitalized inpatients: A randomized waitlist-controlled trial of standard virtual reality (CGI VR) versus video capture VR (360° 3D/stereoscopic video capture VR). The Clinical Journal of Pain, 37 (9), 678-687.

Exercise for mental health

Carl, E., Mason, J., Smits, J.A.J., & Asmundson, G.J.G. (in press). Exercise for mental health: Current perspectives, clinical practice, implications, and future directions. In Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology, Comprehensive Clinical Psychology, 2nd Edition. Elsevier.

Jacquart, J., Dutcher, C., Freeman, S.Z., Stein, A.T., Dihn, M., Carl, E., & Smits, J.A.J. (2019). The effects of exercise on transdiagnostic treatment targets: A meta-analytic review. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 115, 19-37.

Research: Projects
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